WASHINGTON - February 1 - Today European,
international and United States
legal and human rights groups issued an open letter warning of the illegality
of any offensive military action by the United
States against Iran. Signatories include the
American Association of Jurists, Center for Constitutional Rights (U.S.), Droite Solidarite (France),
European Association of Lawyers for Human Rights and Democracy, Italian
Association of Democratic Lawyers, Haldane Society (United Kingdom),
International Association of Democratic Lawyers, Indian Association of
Lawyers, (India), Japanese Association of Lawyers for International
Solidarity, (Japan), Lawyers Against War (Canada), National Lawyers Guild
(U.S.), Progress Lawyers Network (Belgium).
Open Letter to All Members of Congress, the Bush Administration And the U.S. Armed Forces From Legal and Human Rights
There are increasing indications that the Bush administration intends to take
military action against Iran.
There are also indications that the administration would support military
action by Israel against Iran.
The undersigned organizations issue this Open Letter to All Members of
Congress, the Administration and the U.S. Armed Forces to reiterate their
affirmative duties to prevent military action and to refrain from ongoing
threats to peace.
Offensive military action against Iran
would be illegal, as the United
States is bound under the United Nations
Charter to settle international disputes by peaceful means and to refrain
from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity of any
state or act in any other manner inconsistent with the purpose of the United
Nations. (Article 2 sections 3 and 4). While Article 51 of the charter
recognizes the inherent right of individual or collective self defense, such
a right exists only if an armed attack occurs and is allowed only until the
Security Council can take measures necessary to maintain international peace
and security. Any other type of military action by the United States
would not be in compliance with the UN Charter.
The UN Charter, as a treaty ratified by the U.S., is part of the Supreme Law
of the United States under Article VI §2 of the United States Constitution.
If the President and Congress fail to abide by the law as provided in the
Constitution they violate their sacred oaths of office.
Any military action against Iran
in the absence of a military strike by Iran would be a war of aggression
outlawed under Article 2(4) of the UN Charter.
If the United States
or any other nation were to act outside of its UN obligations it would risk
starting a war of aggression and committing a crime against peace.
Furthermore, the sending of aircraft carriers combined with recent
threatening statements constitutes a threat to wage a war with Iran. This is
also prohibited by the Charter. Principle VI of the Nuremberg Principles also
makes crimes against peace punishable under international law. Crimes against
peace include: planning, preparation, initiation or waging a war of
aggression in violation of international treaties, agreements, or assurances,
or participation in a common plan or conspiracy to accomplish these acts.
The United States
and all countries that have ratified the UN Charter are required to abide by
their obligations under it. It is in the interests of all countries of the
world that the United Nations be a viable multilateral institution capable of
carrying out the mission of its charter to preserve peace and promote
development and human rights. Actions which violate that charter undermine
it. Actions by the U.S.
which violate the charter prevent the UN from acting effectively; they also
undermine the credibility of the United States in the world
community. The U.S.
cannot demand that other countries obey the terms of the UN Charter while it
is violating those very provisions with impunity.
The War Powers Act, which requires congressional approval of military action,
must be read consistently with our obligations under the UN Charter and
international law not to engage in wars of aggression. We urge:
1. The President, Vice President, and all other members of the Bush
administration who have a decision-making role with regard to taking military
action in Iran, to immediately renounce such efforts to engage in this war;
2. The members of the military to refuse any requests by the administration
to invade or take other military action against Iran in light of the
illegality of such actions; and
3. That Congress immediately pass a binding resolution reaffirming the United
States’ legal obligations and informing the President and the administration
that it will not concur in any invasion of or military action against Iran,
would refuse to approve funding for any such military action, and would
consider actions taken in contravention of the resolution as impeachable
The American Association of Jurists
Vanessa Ramos, Secretary General, vramos1565 at aol.com
Clea Carpi da Rocha,
President, carpi at pro.via-rs.com.br
Beinusz Szmukler, szmukler at ciudad.com.ar
The Center for Constitutional Rights
Vincent Warren, Executive Director, vwarren at
Bill Goodman, Legal Director, bgoodman at
Roland Weyl, President, mrwjur
European Association of Lawyers for Democracy and Human Rights
RA Thomas Schmid, Secretary General, ra-th-schmidt at t-online.dem
Professor Bill Bowring, b.bowring at bbk.ac.uk
Haldane Society, United Kingdom
Liz Davies, liz at lizdavies.demon.co.uk
International Association of Democratic Lawyers
Jitendra Sharma, President, jsharma
Jeanne Mirer, Secretary General, mirerfam at earthlink.net
Indian Association of Lawyers
Mr. G.K.Bansal, General Secretary, gkb at gkbco.com
Mr. T.M.Mohammed Youseff,
General Secretary, youseffdelhi at gmail.com
Italian Association of Democratic Lawyers
Fabio Marcelli, fabio.marcelli
Japanese Association of Lawyers for International Solidarity, Japan
Osamu Niikura, Secretary General, oniikura at als.aoyama.ac.jp
Lawyers Against the War, Canada
Gail Davidson, Chair, law at portal.ca
National Lawyers Guild
Marjorie Cohn, President, libertad48 at san.rr.com
Progress Lawyers Network, Belgium
Jan Fermon, jan.fermon at